Sugarcane an extensively grown crop in India. It employs over a million people directly or indirectly besides contributing significantly to the national exchequer. Sugarcane-producing countries lay between the latitude 36.7° north and 31.0° south of the equator, stretching from tropical to subtropical zones. Sugar cane began in New Guinea, where it has known for thousands of years. Sugar cane plants grown along human movement routes to Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Here it cross-bred with some wild sugar cane relatives to provide the commercial sugar cane.
Agro-Climatic for Sugarcane
Sugarcane considered a tropical plant essentially. It is a long term crop, and thus it finds all the seasons’ viz., rainy, winter and summer, through its life cycle. However, the Sugarcane plant grows best in tropical hot sunny areas.
A long, warm producing season with a high degree of solar distribution and enough moisture (rainfall) – the plant uses 148 to 300g of water to produce 1.0g of dry substance.
A reasonably dry, sunny and cool, but frost-free season for ripening and harvesting – moisture percentage declines steadily throughout the life of the sugarcane plant, from 83% in very young cane to 71% in the mature club. Meanwhile, sucrose increases from less than 10 to more than 45% of the dry weight.
Proper Soil for Sugarcane Plants
Soil testing before farming is desirable while setting up sugarcane growing as it helps determine the optimum quantity of macro and micronutrient applications. In addition, chemical constraints in the soils, such as acidity and low fertility, are relatively easy to correct or control. Therefore, farmers choose the Powertrac euro 50 tractor model for productive farming. In sugarcane cultivation, the optimum soil pH is about 6.5, but sugarcane can allow a significant degree of soil acidity and alkalinity.
Land Preparing for Sugarcane Farming
Whenever a new crop planted, it necessary to bring the soil to a fine tilth for decent germination and field development and root increase. Tillage is the physical direction of the soil with appropriate implements to loosen the surface soil layer. For preparing the land, tractors played a vital role, and primarily farmers chose the Powertrac Euro 60 tractor model.
The Main Aims of Land Preparation
- To prepare a seedbed that allows optimal soil water air relations
- Good physical requirements for early root perception and proliferation
- Incorporate preceding crop residues and organic fertilizer
- To kill weeds and hibernating pests & disease bodies
- To facilitate proper soil chemical and microbial action
Planting Techniques of Sugarcane
Ridge and Furrow Method
This is the most common way of sugarcane planting followed in Maharashtra. The ridges and grooves opened with the help of the spine by keeping 120 cm distance between tracks in heavy soil and 105 cm distance in light to medium soil. The first sets laid on the end of the top ridge and later planted in furrows in two ways, known as the wet and dry planting method.
Flat Bed Method
The flatbed method of sugarcane planting followed in North Indian states like U.P., Bihar etc. First, the land ploughed, harrowed, levelled, and flatbeds prepared. Then, cane seats laid down in flatbeds end to end in rows. 60 to 90 cm. They pushed into the soil with hands or feet to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm and covered with dirt.
Rayungan method followed for adsali sugarcane farming at river side’s fields in heavy rainfall areas of Kolhapur area.
In these areas usually, cane fields get submerged during the rainy season, which influences germination.
In such cases, a set cannot started directly in the main field.
Trench or Jawa Method
This system practised in Java and Mauritius. Trenches made between 90 to 120 cm. apart and 22 to 30 cm. deep. First, the soil at the bottom loosened and mixed with manures. Then, the sets planted in the middle of the trenches and covered with soil.
Manures Necessary for Sugarcane Cultivation
Sugarcane is a long durational and large feeder crop. Thus, fertilizer demand is very high. Therefore, 25 to 50 tons of FYM/ha applied during the preparation of land. The recommended doses of manure for adsali, pre-seasonal and Suru sugarcane produce.
We hope you get this blog informative for more related blogs. Stay tuned with us.